U-9âs batteries were almost depleted but Weddigen was determined to continue his attack. Aboukir sinking – by the famous British maritime painter Norman Wilkinson Despite this âwake up callâ regarding vulnerability of warships at low speed the Royal Navy initiated a patrol of the northern entrance of the English Channel with five obsolete Cressy class armoured cruisers. Zigzagging at 13 knots was made mandatory for all large warships in submarine waters. Hit by a torpedo fired by the German submarine U-21, she was to gain the unfortunate title of being the first British warship to … At 7:20, Cressy sighted a torpedo track, and the order was given "full speed ahead both", too late. In all 837 men were saved from the three cruisers but 1459 had been lost. The logic of maintaining a patrol in the area was unassailable as a fast German raiding force of destroyers could wreak havoc on British maritime supply lines between the English Coast and Northern France should they enter the Channel. The 34 vessels of this type that were in service at the outbreak of war had entered service between 1902 and 1908 â they were not old ships. A total of 837 men were rescued, but 1,397 men were lost. This was perhaps their only positive attribute. Weddigen was appointed to command of the new submarine U-29 but his tenure was to be tragically short â U-29 was rammed by HMS Dreadnought in the Pentland Firth on 18 March 18th 1915.There were no survivors. The impact on neutral opinion was equally powerful. The force pa… HMS Cressy had stopped to pick up survivors, but got underway, before she was hit by a torpedo and damaged. Hit by a torpedo fired by the German submarine U-21, she was to gain the unfortunate title of being the first British warship to be sunk in this way.Â The Pathfinder was a “Scout Cruiser”, a type which was to evolve in time into the Light Cruiser. Armament: 2 X 9.2â, 12 X 6â and many smaller. Six even-older old cruisers, the 10th Cruiser Squadron, were left patrolling off Aberdeen, on the North-East Scottish coast. Though destroyers and light cruisers would have been more suited to the task it was believed that destroyers would be unable to maintain the patrol in bad weather and insufficient modern light cruisers were available. Cressy's boats had been sent to pick up survivors from the other two ships, and returned already loaded with men. Attempts to counter Aboukirâs list by counter flooding proved unsuccessful and when it was obvious that she was going to roll over âabandon shipâ was ordered. Her heavy-oil engines, of 1040 hp, gave her a surface speed of 13.5 knots. Note the heavy exhaust. Crew at commissioning: 760.  She was commissioned by Captain H. M. T. Tudor for service on the China Station on 28 May 1901, but her departure was delayed for several months when her steering gear broke down shortly after leaving the base and she had to return. Taken hastily from reserve âwhich meant they had been unmanned and poorly, if at all, maintained â on outbreak of war they were quickly overhauled and put back in service. At dawn on September 22nd U-9 surfaced to find the storm over, the sea calm but for a slow swell. The most devastating criticism was of Rear Admiral Campbell, who had been Christianâs superior, and for whom the latter had been acting â at the inquiry he made the remarkable statement that he did not know what the purpose of his command was. The single torpedo was to prove enough to destroy Aboukir. She eventually left home waters in early October 1901, arriving at Colombo 7 November, Singapore and Hong Kong in November. Hogue and Cressy approached to pick up survivors, throwing anything that would float into the water for the survivors to cling to. From that point on, the Royal Navy took submarine attacks on the fleet much more seriously and radically improved its anti-submarine practices. Weddingen managed to get his craft under again and as he did heard two explosions. The reality cannot have been much different to this, horrible as it was. Her greatest weakness was her heavy-oil engine, which produced a very visible exhaust plume. Kapitaenleutnant Otto Weddigen, in command of the German submarine U-9 â the low number indicting just how early a unit this vessel was in the Imperial Navyâs submarine force â had left Wilhelmshaven on September 20th. Every member of the crew received the Iron Cross, Second Class. HMS Cressy was a Cressy -class armoured cruiser in the Royal Navy. Thinking she had struck a mine, and sinking fast, the order was given to abandon ship. On September 22, 1914, the sister ships HMS Aboukir, HMS Hogue, and HMS Cressy were patrolling off the Dutch coast, tasked with supporting the naval blockade against Germany. Cressy was hit forward on the starboard side, and lurched high enough out of the water that a second torpedo passed under her stern. He was the son of Mr and Mrs H. Wickenden, of 9 Dolphin Lane, Dover, and the husband of Mary Ann, nee Colyer, whom he … The Secretary of the Admiralty on September 25 authorized the following statement with reference to the sinking of HMS Aboukir, Cressy and Hogue in the North Sea on September 22:- The facts of this affair cannot be better conveyed to the public than by the attached reports of the Senior Officers who have survived and Landed back in England. 2 × BL 9.2-inch (233.7 mm) Mk X guns The other main actor in the drama was also moving towards the Broad Fourteens. Antoine Vanner blogs weekly – and often more frequently – on naval and more general history and personalities in the period 1700-1918.Topics include naval warfare in the Age of Fighting Sail, the transition from Sail to Steam, international rivalries, dramatic happenings and little known events that have helped shape the world we live in. Assuming that he had hit a mine â even after the loss of the Pathfinder the submarine threat was still underestimated â Captain Drummond ordered Cressy and Hogue to come closer so that Aboukirâs wounded could be transferred.Â Even had a mine indeed been responsible the order would have been an unwise one, but with the U-9âs presence still unsuspected it was to prove fatal. Intended to form part of the battle fleet, they had been rendered obsolete by the advent of the almost equally-disastrous battle-cruiser concept. , Coordinates: 52°15′01″N 3°40′08″E / 52.25028°N 3.66889°E / 52.25028; 3.66889. Smoke was seen on the horizon and the U-9âs engines were immediately shut down to get rid of their exhaust plume. Poor weather made it impossible for the protecting destroyer force to remain in company and Euryalus had to drop out due to lack of coal and weather damage to her wireless.Â Christian had to remain with his ship as the weather was too bad to transfer. Upon completion she was assigned to the China Station. 22nd Sep 1914 HMS Aboukir HMS Cressy and HMS Hogue sunk HMS Aboukir was a, armoured cruiser of the Cressy-class.She has been launched in 1900 and was sunk by a torpedo along with HMS Cressy and HMS Hogue on the 22nd of September 1914 by U.9 in the North Sea. A magazine exploded within minutes after the ship was hit and she went down with a loss of 259 men from her crew of some 270. The earlier classes â the six ships of the Cressy class being the oldest â had very limited offensive capability, especially in rough weather. H.M.S.Cressy. U-9 dived and remained submerged. Thinking she had struck a mine, and sinking fast, the order was given to abandon ship. Also 2X18â torpedo tubes (Note that the Netherlands was neutral throughout World War 1). They were large â and expensive â ships and they needed large crews. At 6:55, Hogue was struck by two torpedoes. He was sixteen years of age. On the day of her destruction her bunkers were so depleted that she was restricted to 5 knots, making her an easy target for the U-Boat. About a half hour after Cressy went down a small Dutch steamer, the Flora, approached and managed to pluck 286 men from the water. The U-9, having spotted British destroyers, but managing to escape detection, signalled news of her success when she reached the Ems Estuary. A drawing of the Cressy’s end by the American artist Henry Reuterdahl (1870-1925) Click here to return to Steam, Steel and Strife, Disaster 1914: The loss of HMS Aboukir, Cressy and Hogue. Hogue and Cressy approached to pick up survivors, throwing anything that would float into the water for the survivors to cling to. Hogue and Cressy were now creeping towards Aboukirâs survivors and lowering boats. Less than a month later, U-9 sank the even more elderly cruiser, HMS Hawke. HMS Cressy was a Cressy-class armoured cruiser built for the Royal Navy around 1900. Cressy was sunk on 22 September 1914 along with two of her sisterships, by the German U-boat U-9. The numerous âartistsâ impressionsâ of the sinkings which were published in illustrated magazines did nothing to understate the horror involved. Undetected, U-9 came within 600 yards of Aboukirâs port bow before firing a torpedo. In 1907 she was transferred to the North America and West Indies Station before being placed in reserve in 1909. Her commander, Otto Weddigen, was not so fortunate. Details of the Cressy class, of which Cruiser Force C was composed, were as follow: Displacement: 12,000 tons The vulnerability of these cruisers was recognised by many senior officers, not only because of their obsolescence but because of their manning. The first indication of the submarine’s potential came on September 5th 1914, when the British cruiser HMS Pathfinder was sunk in the North Sea off the Scottish coast. As Hawke got under way again â without zigzagging â Weddigen sank her with a single torpedo. Through his periscope he could see the surface strewn it wreckage, bodies, swimmers and overcrowded boats. Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, World War I cruisers of the United Kingdom, Ships sunk by German submarines in World War I, Fairfield Shipbuilding & Engineering Co Ltd, Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy, Castles of Steel: Britain, Germany and the Winning of the Great War at Sea, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/HMS_Cressy_(1899)?oldid=2641757, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls. As many as five men clung to a single life vest, and a dozen men to a single plank. The sinking of HMS HAWKE: One of the greatest single losses of Royal Navy sailors from Ulster with 49 Ulstermen lost to just one U-boat. Cressy was sunk on 22 September 1914 along with two of her sisterships, by the German U-boat U-9. Hit amidships on the port side, the engine and boiler rooms were flooded and the ship listed to port. Tuesday, 22 September 1914 sinking of the 3 cruisers HMS Aboukir, Hogue, and Cressy off the Dutch coast by U.9 being sunk one by one as each ship went in turn to the assistance of their sisters. She eventually l… And because they never sighted periscopes, they no longer zigzagged. HMS Cressy was launched 4 December 1899, and along with her sister ships HMS Aboukir and HMS Hogue, was torpedoed by a single submarine, the U9, off the Dutch coast early on 22 September 1914. – the Hogue is seenÂ dropping boats to pick up survivors, Â A contemporary illustration of the Aboukir’s end Cressy rolled to her starboard side, paused, then went bottom up with her starboard propeller out of the water. No money was to be spent repairing them, but they were to be used until they were completely worn out. The bulk of the blame was directed at the Admiralty for persisting with a patrol that was dangerous and of limited value against the advice of senior sea-going officers. Only then did the Admiralty finally remove the old armoured cruisers from patrol duties. Once again - as with the 'live bait squadron' - Submarine U-9 had struck. Hit on the starboard side, the cruiser heeled over, then began to right herself.Â Some ten minutes later Weddigen fired his last torpedo from its bow tube. Of these 34, a total of 13 were to be lost in the next four years. September 22nd 2014 saw the hundredth anniversary of the first massive loss by the Royal Navy in the First World War. The steamer Titan rescued another 147 men, and later eight of Tyrwhitt's destroyers arrived. At 6:20 AM on 22 September, HMS Aboukir was torpedoed by SM U-9 and sank in 35 minutes. Of these, at least 31 men had connections to Ulster, most of them Stokers and three quarters of them part time reservists. Shortly afterwards, a second torpedo hit her and she sank within 15 minutes. Weddigen still had three torpedoes left, two aft, one forward. Kapitaenleutnant Weddigen was by now back at sea and on the morning of October 15th â three weeks after his previous exploit â he found Hawke and her sister Endymion stationary and transferring mail. 12 × BL 6-inch (152.4 mm) Mk VII guns. The impact on British public-consciousness was massive â comparable to the loss HMS Courageous and HMS Royal Oak in 1939 â and all the more so since it was recognised not only as avoidable, but the result of poor professional decision-making. Cheering erupted on U-9. The survivors were almost all naked, and so exhausted they had to be hauled aboard with tackle. The first indication of the submarineâs potential came on September 5th 1914, when the British cruiser HMS Pathfinder was sunk in the North Sea off the Scottish coast. The supremacy of British naval power had been assumed ever since Trafalgar and was now suspect.Â The First World War had opened badly at sea for Britain, and yet more disasters were imminent. Aboukir and Hogue, on the morning of the 22nd of September, while on patrol duty. A contemporary German drawing of the U-9 on patrol. At 7:30, a third torpedo hit Cressy on the port beam, rupturing tanks in the boiler room and scalding the men. U-9âs periscope was spotted and the cruiser opened fire, the surged forward in an unsuccessful attempt to ram.Â Then, unaccountably, she stopped again. After finishing her sea trials she passed into the fleet reserve at Portsmouthon 24 May 1901. In addition, nine naval cadets, some as young as 15, were allocated to each ship, being taken directly from the Royal Naval College.Â The general view of Cruiser Force Câs fighting potential was summed up in the nickname it quickly acquired – the “Live Bait Squadron”. Each ship also carried nine cadets from the Royal Navy College at Dartmouth, most of whom were under 15. His orders wereÂ to attack British transports landing troops at Ostend, on the Belgian coast. Lord Charles Beresford never again referred to submarines as "playthings" or "toys". With Christian unable to transfer his flag, command devolved to Captain John Drummond of the Aboukir. Each ship had over 700 officers and men from the Royal Navy reserves, many being middle aged family men from local towns and villages. He manoeuvred to bring U-9âs stern tubes to bear and fired both at a range of a thousand yards.Â One torpedo struck the Cressy but the second missed. Two Dutch trawlers had approached initially but bore away in fear of mines. On 20 September Rear-Admiral Arthur Christian returned to port with HMS Euryalus to coal, reducing the patrol to three ships, Cressy, Aboukir and Hogue. Weddigen attempted to navigate by soundings â a doubtful technique even in the best of circumstances. Reuterdahl - HMS Cressy Sinking.jpg 1,200 × 756; 108 KB HMS Cressy.jpg 890 × 666; 308 KB Steam launch of the HMS Cressy at the Port of Scheveningen in The Hague, 1914.jpg 3,858 × 2,708; 3.74 MB Chatham-based cruisers HMS Cressy, HMS Aboukir and HMS Hogue were sent to the bottom of the sea about 20 miles off Holland in September 1914, leaving 1,459 sailors dead. At 7:20, Cressy sighted a torpedo track, and the order was given "full speed ahead both", too late. Twenty-five minutes after the torpedo strike Aboukir capsized, remained on the surface, bottom-up, for a few minutes with a few wretches clinging to her, then disappeared. As the three Royal Navy cruisers sunk into the cold waters a few miles off the coast of the Netherlands. each displacing 12,000 tons and mounting two 9.2” and 12 6” guns. U-9 targeted and sank the HMS Aboukir, Hogue, and Cressy, killing over 1400 officers and men. Among these was HMS Hawke, a protected cruiser of 7700 tons which dated from 1893 and was the survivor of a collision with the liner RMS Olympic in 1911. But thatâs another story. There was little over a decadeâs experience of their employment and designs were largely experimental. Three vessels were approaching â the Aboukir, Cressy and Hogue â and Weddingen steered on his electric motors towards the central vessel, Aboukir. In all 1,459 men were lost off the Dutch Coast, on the three ships HMS Aboukir, HMS Cressy and HMS Hogue. U-9 dived and remained submerged. She could make 25 knots top speed but her limited coal capacity was the class’s Achilles heel. Initial scouting patrols against surface warships sank several cruisers in the first month of World War I.Incidental encounters with merchant ships were handled by signalling the ship to stop and sinking the ship after removing the crew in accordance with international law. She was now stationary and Weddigen fired both bow tubes at her. ABOUKIR (survivor list included) ABBS, Tom W R, Sick Berth Attendant, M 4398 (Ch) ABRATHAT, William, Private, RMLI (RFR B 1999), 12609 (Ch) As this was still running Weddigen took his craft down to 50 feet, then heard âa dull thud, followed by a shrill-toned crashâ. , In 1954 the British government sold the salvage rights to the ship and salvage is ongoing. Self-propelled torpedoes dramatically increased effectiveness of submarine warships. HMS Aboukir at Malta – note 6″ weapons in casemates along sides. This disaster in question was to cost 1459 men their lives and destroy three ships. On September 20th 1914 Cruiser Force Câs patrol consisted of HMS Euryalus, HMS Aboukir, HMS Hogue and HMS Cressy, with a fifth vessel, HMS Bacchante in remaining in port. All hands were on deck, and it was a terrible explosion. The same weather that plagued Cruiser Force C battered the U-9 unmercifully â her limited underwater endurance meant that she had to remain on the surface â and her gyrocompass became inoperable. German reports that the sinkings were the work of a single submarine and the Times newspaper speculated that an entire German submarine-flotilla had been responsible, from which only the U-9 had returned safely. A second Dutch ship, the Titan, rescued 147 more. Maximum Speed: 21 Knots on completion, probably 15 in 1914 HMS Cressy was a Cressy-class armoured cruiser in the Royal Navy. Though only 32, Weddigen was an experienced submariner and had survived a peacetime accident to the U-3, from which he and 27 others had escaped though a torpedo tube. Cressy was hit forwar… Shortly after the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914, Cressy and her sister ships Bacchante, Euryalus, Hogue and Aboukir were assigned to the 7th Cruiser Squadron, patrolling the Broad Fourteens of the North Sea, in support of a force of destroyers and submarines based at Harwich which blocked the eastern end of the English Channel from German warships attempting to attack the supply route between England and France. The solution was to deploy old armoured cruisers which had at least got the necessary station-keeping capability. The Dawlish Chronicles Blog. Though the three ships lost in the Broad Fourteens were of little fighting value the impact on British public opinion was massive, not least because of the heavy loss of life. Henry Charles Wickenden, was lost with the HMS Cressy on 22 September 1914. 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